1. Background

In February 2019, the German Federal Cartel Office issued a decision prohibiting the tech giant Meta from using “off-Facebook data”[1] to create personalized advertising for German users. The authority considered such activity to be inconsistent with the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), thus constituting an abuse of Meta’s dominant position on the

As widely anticipated, the Düsseldorf Regional Court has decided to refer to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) a series of question arising from a dispute between Nokia and Daimler regarding the alleged infringement of one of Nokia’s standard essential patent (SEPs) by Daimler’s connected cars.

The dispute in suit concerned in